Saturday, 28 February 2015

Marow ew Spock

Trigoryon an Nor, böwnas hir ha sowena dhewgh dhort ster golowys an broster. Ma edrek dhebm dervivas fatel ew marow an actour a bris, Leonard Nimoy, neb o Spock e'n res TV, Star Trek. Gen y gowetha e'n sterlester Enterprise, ev a eth der vaner bold dhe'n ster ha'n planettys pell, le na wrüg den veth moas kens.

Kevren awoles

Thursday, 26 February 2015

Flowrys! Blejyow! Gwaynton!

Cornwall Spring Flower Show | Boconnoc | Cornwall

Flowrys a'n gwaynton, teg aga liwyow

Pana dermyn?
An 28 ha'n 29 a vis Meurh (Merh) 2015

Pe le? Boconnek

Pandra? Flowrys!

Eneth arta, e vedh senjys an disqwedhyans bledhednek a flowrys a'n gwaynton en lowar Boconnek ogas dhe Lostwithyel en Kernow gen flowrys a bub liw ha gwedh fin ha losow a bub ehen a gynda eus dhe voas kevys en lowarthow spladn an pow. Kewgh a losowen dhe losowen vel an gwenen, cowetha! En eur-ma (mis Whevral, thera vy o menya) an parkow en west a'n pow ha Sillan ew leun a solsow (daffs) ha na vedh pell terebo nei dhe weles blejow spern gwydn ewedh. Clickyow òbma rag pella derivadow dro dhe'n disqwedhyans:

Notes: (1) flowr or flouren (pl flourys) is the everyday word for flowers. Blejen and the plural blejyow should really only be used in the names of plants and De Sül Blejyow - Palm Sunday. Na dal dhen towla an flowrys mes gen an dowr. (2) lowar =  lowarth 'garden'.

Monday, 23 February 2015

Pedn broas, vydna whei boas cregys?

In the English play, The Northern Lasse by Richard Brome (1632) there is a single Cornish phrase, used by one of the characters to try and speak to a Spaniard: 'Pedn bras, vidne whee bis cregas.'

SWF/L: Pedn broas, vydna whei boas cregys?
Sowsnek: Fat head, do you want to be hanged?

vydna whei? means 'do you want to?' or 'will you?' and may also be spelt vedna whei? or vedda whei?.

This is the same as vynnowgh why in SWF/M. In Modern Cornish it is usual to follow the verb with whei 'you' but the verb may be used on its own, in which we write vednowgh.

Friday, 20 February 2015

An pel arhans ma

Image result for hurling silver ball st columb
Hurlya en jedh hedhyw.

This verse by Thomas Boson, written in 1705 is an inscription for a silver hurling ball given to his cousin William Gwavas. 

The original text is followed by a version in the SWF/L and English. Hurling is still played with a hard, silver ball at St. Columb, as seen in the photograph but in the 1700s it was so popular that they could say "Hurlya ew gan gwary nei." - Hurling is our sport.

An pelle Arrance ma ve resse, gen mere Hurleyey, Creve ha brosse
Do Wella Gwavas an Deane gentle (dhe is often da or do in LC.)
an kensa journa a messe Heddra an Centle (No mutation after a.)
en Plew Pawle, in Cernow Teage (t>d mutation not observed here.)
an Blooth Creste an Arleuth whege
Meele Sith Cans ha hanter Deege

An pel arhans ma veu res, This silver ball was given
gen meur hurlejey, crev ha broas, by many hurlers, strong and great, 
Dhe Wella Gwavas an den jentel, to William Gwavas the gentleman,
an kensa jorna a mis Hedra an kentel the first day of October (at) the gathering
en Pluw Pawl, en Kernow teg, in Paul Parish in fair Cornwall,
an bloodh Crist an Arlòth wheg, in the year of Christ the sweet Lord,
Mil seyth cans ha hanter deg. One thousand, seven hundred and half ten.

Notes: 1. The words <ma> 'this' and <na> 'that' may be attached to the preceding noun if preferred. 2. The SWF spelling <arlodh> is used here with an accent. 3. <kentel> is a variation of <cuntel>.

Tuesday, 17 February 2015

Eus keus? Eus po nag eus?

Eus keus? Eus po nag eus? Mars eus keus, dro keus. Po nag eus keus dro an peth eus.

A traditional tongue-twister: Is there any cheese? Is there or isn't there? If there is some cheese, bring cheese and if there isn't any bring what there is.

Cheese is keus [ke:z]. Before the SWF we wrote kêz or keaz so the whole thing was "Ez kêz? Ez po nag êz? Mars êz kêz, dro kêz. Po nag êz kêz dro an pêth êz." - which shows how to say it.

Da ew genam bara ha keus gen gwin. Ew hedna da gena whei ewedh? Nei vedn debry tabm warbarth, mars ew da gena whei. 

Monday, 16 February 2015

Tredhon pub dedh en Kernôwek Bew

Clappya tredhon e'n lowar.
What is the phrase “Tredhon pub dedh en Kernôwek Bew” at the head of this page? Word for word, it means, “Between us each day in living Cornish.” The idea is to use Cornish to communicate with each other as much as we can. The word for "between", which some speakers know as ynter, yntra (SWF/M), is usually shortened to ter, tre or tredh in SWF/L. Shortly before 1700, William Rowe wrote “treeth”. To say “between us” we have these documented forms to pick from:

yn treȝon (PA.0302a);yntreȝon (PA.1692b); yntrethon (OM.0936); yntrethon (OM.1859); yntrethon (PC.2842); interthon (BM.1922); intrethan (TH.27 39); interrañye (interrannye) (CW.0839); trethon(AB244b07); trethon (PV.17535);
In SWF/L we may therefore write: tredhon as our default form but keep yntredhon and ynterra nei handy too.

Thursday, 12 February 2015

Nebes geryow rag Gool Valentin

Image result for red rose
Love is carenja in our SWF-based spelling (but kerenja or kerensa in SWF/M). When we say it quickly it becomes crenja or crensa.

The word for heart is colon
(This sometimes resists the 'soft' mutation c/k > g.)

I love you is: Theram o cara che
(or) Me a’th car
To lay it on a bit thicker you can say:

Theram o cara che en golon: I love you in the heart
Dres pub hüny me a'th car: I love you more than anyone
Me a’th car benary: I will always love you

You can also use the formal (plural) form: Thera vy cara whei en colon

More luv phrases:
gen meur a garenja: with much love
Disqwa dhebm a'th carenja: Show me your love
An carenja vy ew rag nevra sür: My love is forever sure
Senj o holon dhis: Bind my heart to thee
Ro dhebm dha abm: Give me a kiss


whegol:dear, darling; melder: sweetness; cüv colon; dear, darling;

whegen(f) whegyn(m): sweety; o mel: my honey

Wednesday, 11 February 2015

E'n tavern an dre

contemplative pint
Ma Phil o moas aberha dhe’n tavern ha doas nes dhe’n bar lebma ost an chei o còlhy nebes gwedrednow ha ga settya spladn war styllen. Ma sehes dhe Phil. Mall ew ganjo glebya y vin.

Key words: badna cor: a drop of beer (SWF/M banna corev);
mar pleg: please; sos: mate; sara: sir; scrynkya: pull a face; pur dha: very good; diflas: tastless, disgusting; venja: would (= vynsa); gena whei (or) genowgh: with you; gena vy (or) genam: with me; na orama (or) n'orama: I don't know
Ost: Dedh da dhe whei, sara. Pandra venja whei cawas?
Phil: Badna cor, mar pleg.
Ost: Pandra ew gwell gena whei, Doom Bar po HSD?
Phil: HSD ew gwell genam.
Ost: Pur dha. Otta va genowgh.
Phil: Meurasta whei, sira wheg. (Ma Phil eva badna cor ha scrynkya.)
Phil: Dar! Nag ew hebma cor!
Ost: Nag ew cor! Pandra ew, dhàna?
Phil: N’orama, sos, bes nag ew cor ha nag ew HSD. Diflas ew.

(Phil is unhappy with his pint. He says it isn't beer at all, let alone HSD.)

Tuesday, 10 February 2015

Piw o whei, Kernowyon? (1) Peter Mundy

Peter Mundy, Merchant Adventurer book jacketPeter Mundy a veu genys en Penrin (po Perin) en Kernow e’n vledhen 1600, moy po le. Tho Mundy an kensa den en Breten Veur a screfas adro dhe eva te. Ev a lavaras fatel wrüg tastya “chaa” en Chiny, pa wrüg moas ena. Rag hedna nei alja pur dha leverel chaa dhe voas moy Kernôwek vel Sowsnek! Mundy a evas chocolat tòbm e’n gorhel marchont a Spayn ewedh. Ev eth dhe lies pow a’n bes, en Asia ha Europ magata. Ev a eth dhe Russia, Pow an Danow, Prussia, Turky, Spayn, Portûgal, Eynda (Utter Pradesh, Gujarat ha Bengal, rag sampel), Japan ha whath enesow ha powyow erol na orama dhe compla òbma.

Nag ew marth y vôwnas ha y gawl pa thera nei consydra y floholeth ha pedery fatel era marchons dhort Penrin en Constantinopel ha Rom ha’n Enesow Canary en dedhyow-na. Mab marchont hern o Mundy, nep a eth gen y sira dhe Rouen en Frenk termyn e veu maw, naw bloodh. Òja hedna e veu denvenys dhe Gascony m’alja desky Frenkek. En 1611 ev eth dhe’n mor vel maw en gorhel marchont ha tabm ha tabm òja hedna e wrüg gwella (po gwelhe) condicyon y vôwnas e’n East India Company terebo veu den rych lowr. Nei ell supposya der oya dhe clappya Kernôwek rag en dedhyow-na oll an bobel e’n west a’n pow, ogasty, a oya an tavas, ha’y Sowsnek scrifys o pur dha. Et y lever entitlys Itinerarium Mundi (gwary geryow gen y hanow), e scrifas nebes geryow Kernôwek, rag sampel an ger morgy, neb ew ehen a besk. E’n keth lever ev a screfas nebes geryow en Portûgalek ewedh. Ma y hanow Kernôwek o menya ‘Mineral House’, dhort an ger “moun” (metal ore, mineral) ha -dy, -ty, -jy (chei, house). Ev a spenas y vledhydnyow diwedhes, tredh 1663 ha 1667 en Falmeth leb alja gwelys an gorholyon o moas ha o toas e’n porh.

The first person to write about tea or "chaa" in Britain was a Penriner who went all the way to China for it. Here he is pictured in the traditional red and black colours that all true Penriners aspire to. Up the Borough!

Monday, 9 February 2015

Hern! Holan moy!

Pedn ha tin e'n balyer.
Several versions of this rhyme about curing pilchards exist. The original appears to be by John Boson and written c. 1705. Here it is rendered in the SWF/L with one or two amendments. In the second line Boson wrote zans, thinking that it meant bay but this is probably wrong. The word used here is <baya>, found in the place-name Baya Bian. Pilchards: hern.
Ma canow vy war hern gen cock ha roos. (cock: fishing boat; roos: net)
Kemerys en baya Carrek Loos e’n Coos. (kemerys: taken, caught)
Pa thew an cockow devedhys tre, (When the boats have come home)
Dort mor, tüs porh, ‘Dega! Dega!’, cria, (dega: tithe)
Ha keniver benyn ogas o toas, (The MSS differ and are unclear.)
Gen cawal ha trei cans hern war ‘y heyn. (cawal: large basket)
Dhe (g)wil barcados en keniver chei, (barcados: baulks of pilchards)
Gen ganow lies, 'Hern! Hern! Holan moy!’ (more salt!)
Pa thens sallys da, üdn mis warbarh, (sallys da: well salted)
Pres ew dhe squacha ‘mann ha tedna kerh. (pres ew: it's time)
Òj’hedda, golhy glaneth en dowr sal. (dowr sal: brine)
Y vedn rei hanow da dhe’ mòsy oll. (dhe' for dhe'n)
Gorra spladn en balyer, pedn ha tin. (balyer: barrel)
Gober ha tra broas ens rag’ varchons fin. (gober: wages)
Mirow whei rag gwedhen hir terdhek troos. (terdhek: thirteen)
Gorra war hodda menow pemp cans poos. (hodda/hodna: that - feminine)
Trei termyn en dedh mirow whei dodho. (mirow whei: look)
Rag hanter mis dorto saym vedn codha, (saym: fish oil for fuel)
Thew hemma vorr gwir an hern dhe parra. (vorr = fordh)
E'n marhas gwella jei vedn wharra. (marhas: market) 
Bledhen war bledhen gwra gorholyon doas, (gorholyon: ships)
Ha gen hern leun moas ort Dowr Gwavas. (Gwavas Lake)
War diwath gwra gwens Noor Est whetha pell, (whetha pell: blow far)
Rag an bobel pow tobm dhe dhebra oll. (debra - a variation of debry) 
Ma peth hern pecar’a oll an bes. (oll an bes: all the world)
Moy rag pobel bohojek vel pobel broas. (pobel bohojek: poor folk)

Sunday, 8 February 2015

Mettin da dhe whei

William Gwavas
Most of the greetings and farewells we use in Cornish today come from the later writers and those who recorded the language as it was disappearing in the 18th century. This example from William Gwavas provides us with:

dedh da dhe whei: Good day to you; Nos da dhe whei: Good night to you; and Fatel era whei o kil? How do you do?, How are you doing?
Spot SWF/L <dhe whei> instead of SWF/M <dhewgh whi> <dhewgh hwi> and the form lawle 'say, saying' which needs to be spelt <loal> or (if we may) <laul> in the SWF. It has the same vowel as in broas and moas. Take note of the similarity between the word for "sir" which has a short vowel(<syrra> or <serra> in the SWF but <sarra> in Gwavas' text) and the word for father (<sira> in the SWF.) which has a long vowel.
Gwavas' original:
Metten porew why sevall why rez lawle thagoz taaze ha goz daamah wor agoz pedndowlen bednath deew ha an Bednath wor a Vee me a bedge tha Deew.Tha lebba ez drestawhy Meten dah tha why, sarra! Po deeth dah tha why, Sarra, po nooze dah tha why, Sarra! po fatelaro why o keel, Sirra?

Mettin, pa wrewgh whei sevel, whei res laul dhe gas tas ha gas dama, war agas pedn dowlin, bednath Duw ha an Bednath wara vy, me a bej dhe Duw. Dhe leb a eus dresta whei, Mettin da dhe whei, sarra! po dedh da dhe whei, Sarra, po nos da dhe whei, Sarra! po fatel era whei o kil, Syrra?

In the morning when you rise; you must say to your father and mother, upon your knees, the blessing of God and the blessing upon me, I pray to God. To your superiors, Good morning to you Sir, or a Good day to you Sir; or a Good Night to you Sir – or How do you do Sir?
Bilbao MSS, see OC Vol. VIII, No 10, Hav 1978.

Saturday, 7 February 2015

Parra an cock: Getting the boat ready (lether)

Coweth vy,
Ma an cock ort y angor arta en cres an porh. Me a'n gorras ena lebma seythen na vo kellys termyn ha nei o parra an daffar. Ma oll an flour nowydh gwres gen plankys saben a Norgagh. Ma war o thowl chanjya an liw dhe velyn paw bran e'n gwenton, car dr'o cock agan coweth, Oliver, gen list glas awarha ha goles glas ewedh. Pandra es'ta predery a hedna? Theram o senjy melyn gwell vel gwydn, na via gwelys mar pia caletter dhen. Ma meur a whel dhe wil, na whath, ken nei dhe wil adro dhe payntya. Ma an jynn dhe owna ha'n strasow dhe lanhe aberha ha mes. Lavar dhebm p'o whei parrys dhe rei dorn dhebm, sos!
gen oll an golon vy,
Here, Borlase's <angor> is preferred to <ankor>. Me a'n gorras "I put it..." is an example of the infixed pronoun <'n> 'it' or 'him'. Na vo kellys termyn: "so that time will not be lost." Ma war o thowl: "I'm planning to..."
In our SWF-based house style, <rh> shows where <th> has been dropped: porth > porh and avoids the need for an apostrophe.
Geryow: flour: deck; saben: pine; Norgagh: Norway; chanjya (KS <chaunjya> gives a better idea of pronunciation): change; paw bran: buttercup; list: stripe, band; strasow: bilges; dhe lanhe (glanhe): to clean

Friday, 6 February 2015

Ma Whevral o lenel an creunyow rag Meurh

This Cornish saying, recorded in the Morrab MS and by Lhuyd, gives us the name of February: Whevral or Hwevral in the SWF. The form <whevrer> or <hwevrer>, used by some speakers, is an overcorrection modeled on Breton and Welsh. The proper Cornish name ends in <l>. In later Cornish, especially, the final th of Merth (SWF Meurth) and similar words is dropped and may be represented as an <h>. The <eu> spellings in the SWF, KK and KS are pronounced like an e in later Cornish. Note the plural in -iaw which shows the pronunciation of SWF -yow.
Ma Huevral leanna an crenniaw rag Merh. (Lh)
Ma Wherwal a lennal an crenniaw rag Merh. (Morrab MS)
Ma Whevral o lenel an creunyow rag Meurh~Meurth. (SWF/L)
February fills the dams for March.

Ha me o moas... A Cornish riddle c.1698

This riddle, sometimes referred to as 'The Fisherman's Catch", has been set to music and arranged by several musicians, including Richard Gendall. A version was recorded by the group Sowena. It was communicated by Capt. Noel Carter c. 1698 and versions were written down by both Borlase and Tonkin, neither of whom spoke Cornish themselves, despite studying it. See OC Vol I. You will see that the mutations are not written, although we know that contemporary writers observed them. The <h> of ha is dropped, as in Bodinar's letter. The article <an> is reduced to <a> throughout. This also occurs in about 8% of cases in William Rowe's translations and in the writings of the Boson family. There is no preocclusion (dn) in the article  ün ~ üdn. The plural of lost (tail) is losia, showing expected loss of t. The ow plurals are often written a, au or aw in later texts. This riddle provides the only examples of the verbs (SWF) trouvya 'to find' and gansynjy 'to get hold of'.
The manuscipt version.
A Mi a moaz, a mi a moaz in Goon Glaze,
Mi a clouaz, a clouaz, a clouaz, a troz, a troz, a troz, an pysgaz miniz.
Bez mi a trouviaz un pysg brawze, Naw Losia,
Olla Boble en Porthia ha Marazjowan
Ne mi ôr Dho Gan Zingy.(Bor.MS: Nevra ni ôr dho ganzingy.) 
SWF/L tg
Ha me o moas, ha me o moas e’n woon las,
Me a glowas, a glowas, a glowas, a tros, a tros, a tros, a'n puscas münys,
Bes me a drouvyas ün pesk broas, naw y losyow,
Oll a bobel en Porthia ha Marhas Jôwan
Na me or dhe gansynjy. (Nevra na or dhe gansyngy.)
As I was going... in the blue down, I heard the noise... of the little fishes, but I found a big fish with nine tails. All the folk in St. Ives and Marazion nor me knew how to get hold of it. 

Thursday, 5 February 2015

Jacka Tan (A rhyme for children.)

Jacka Tan a gachas bran ha'y worra berha hogen. Ha hei whath tòbm, e lonkas tabm. Ass ew an maw-na scogen!

Jimmy Fire caught a crow and put it in a pasty. He swallowed a piece whilst it was hot still. What an idiot that boy is!

Sunday, 1 February 2015

Jôwan Chei an Horr (an kensa poynt a skians)

En termyn eus passyes thera trigys en Selevan den ha benyn en telher creiys Chei an Horr, ha’n whel a godhas scant: Ha medh an den dhe’n wreg: “Me a vedn moas dhe whilas whel dhe wil, ha whei ell dendyl gas bownas obma.” Cübmyas teg ev a gemeras, ha pell dhe est ev a dravalyas, ha war an diwedh e wrüg doas dhe chei tiek ha wrüg whilas ena whel dhe wil.“Pana whel elles ta gwil?” medh an tiek. “Pub whel oll,” medh Jôwan. Ena jei a vargydnyas rag trei pens* a’n vledhen gober. Ha pa thera diwedh an vledhen, y vêster a dhisqwedhas dhodho an trei pens. “Mir Jôwan,” medh y vêster, “obma dha wober bes mar men’ta rei dhebm arta, me a dhesk dhis kens poynt a skians.” “Dr'ew hedna?” medh Jôwan. “Na,” medh y vêster, “ro e dhemm, ha my a vedn leverel dhis.” “Kemerowgh dhàn!” medh Jôwan. Nena medh y vêster: “Kemerowgh with na wrewgh gara an vorr goth rag an vorr nowydh.” Nena anjei a vargydnyas rag bledhen moy, rag pecar gober ha pa thera diwedh an vledhen, y vêster a dhros an trei pens. “Mir Jôwan,” medh y vester, “obma dha gober,** bes mar men’ta ' rei dhemm arta, me a dhesk(a)*** dhis ken poynt a skians.” “Pandr’ew hedna?” medh Jôwan. “Na,” medh y vêster. “Ro e dhebm, ha my a vedn leverel dhis.” - “Kemerowgh dhàn!” medh Jôwan. Nena medh y vêster: “Kemerowgh with, na wrewgh ostya e’n chei lebma vo den coth demydhys dhe venyn yonk.”
*Mutation of <p> to <f> is not observed in the original text. *** Mutation of <go> to <o> is not observed either.  ***In the original text, Boson wrote "me a deska deez" with an unexpected a ending.